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About Yogyakarta

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Yogyakarta

Yogyakarta (/ˌjɒɡjəˈkɑːrtə/ or /ˌjoʊɡjəˈkɑːrtə/;[1] also Jogja orJogjakarta, is a city and the capital of Yogyakarta Special Region in Java, Indonesia. It is renowned as a center of education (Kota Pelajar), classical Javanese fine art and culture such as batik, ballet, drama, music, poetry, and puppet shows. Yogyakarta was the Indonesian capital during the Indonesian National Revolution from 1945 to 1949, with Gedung Agung as the president's office. One of the districts in Yogyakarta, Kotagede, was the capital of the Mataram Sultanatebetween 1575 and 1640. The city is named after the Indian city of Ayodhya from the Ramayana epic. Yogya means "suitable, fit, proper", and karta, "prosperous, flourishing" (i.e., "a city that is fit to prosper"). Its population was 388,627 inhabitants at the 2010 census and its built-up (or metro) area was home to, 4,010,436 inhabitants spread on two cities (Yogyakarta and Magelang) and 65 districts spread on Sleman, Klaten, Bantul, Kulon Progo and Magelang regencies. While urbanization sprawls, Yogyakarta-Magelang and Surakarta are being agglomerated in a few years. The Dutch name of the city is Djokjakarta.

Kraton Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat

Kraton of Yogyakarta (formally known as: Keraton Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat)is a palace complex located in the city ofYogyakarta,Yogyakarta Special Region,Indonesia. The palace is the main seatSultan of Yogyakartaand his family. It serves as a cultural center for theJavanese peopleand contains a museum that displays the sultanate's artifacts.

History

Yogyakarta Palace was built byPrince Mangkubumi in 1755-1756  (Javanese year: 1682),several months after the signing of theTreaty of Giyanti between Prince Mangkubumi of Yogyakarta,Hamengkubuwono of Surakarta and Dutch East India Company. A Banyan Forest was chosen as the site of the palace due to its location between two rivers which were considered good protection from possible flooding.

On 20 June 1812,Stamford Rafflesled a 1,200-strong British force to attack the walled royal city of Yogyakarta. The Javanese although out number the invader, wasn't prepared for the attack and was taken back by the event. In one day the city of Yogyakarta fell, with the royal palace sacked and burned. The total loot from the palace valued £15,000 in gold, jewels and hard currency (which valued £500,000 today). The event was the first time an attack has been carried out into a court in Java and as a result the sultanate was completely subjugated to colonial authority.

Most of the palace's current form are built by Sultan Hamengkubuwono VIII who reign from 1921 to 1939. It suffered from an earthquake in 1876 and 2006, and was subsequently rebuilt after the devastation.

Jalan Malioboro

Jalan Malioboro (English:Malioboro Street) is a major shopping street in Yogyakarta,Indonesia; the name is also used more generally for the neighborhood around the street. It lies north-south axis in the line between Yogyakarta Kraton and Mount Merapi. This is in itself is significant to many of the local population, the north–south orientation between the palace and the volcano being of importance.

The street is the centre of Yogyakarta's largest tourist district surrounded with many hotels, restaurants, and shops nearby. Sidewalks on both sides of the street are crowded with small stalls selling a variety of goods. In the evening several open-air street side restaurants, called lesehan, operate along the street. This is the street of the artists. Street musicians, painters, and other artists exhibit their creations on this road. Less obvious to the tourist, but more for the local population, side streets, lanes and structures that lead on to Malioboro are as important as the street itself.

History

The street was for many years two-way, but by the 1980s had become one way only, from the railway line (where it starts) to the south - to Beringharjo markets, where it ends. The largest, oldest Dutchera hotel, Hotel Garuda, is located on the street's northern end, on the eastern side adjacent to the railway line. It has the former Dutch era Prime Minister's complex, the  kepatihan, on the eastern side.

For many years in the 1980s and later, a cigarette advertisement was placed on the first building south of the railway line - or effectively the last building on Malioboro, which advertisedMarlborocigarettes, no doubt appealing to locals and foreigners who would see a pun with name of the street with a foreign product being advertised.

It does not reach the walls or grounds of theYogyakarta palace, as Malioboro ceases in name adjacent to the very large market Beringharjo (on the eastern side as well). From this point the street changes name to Jalan Ahmad Yani (Ahmad Yani Street) and has the former Governors residence on the western side, and the old Dutch Fort Vredeburgon the eastern side.

Gembira Loka

Gembira Loka is a zoological garden located Yogyakarta Special Regionin Java, Indonesia. Gembira Loka was opened in 1956 and comprises a botanical garden, orchid nursery, artificial lake, children's park, numerous bridges across the Gajahwong River, and a collection of approximately 470 animals, most notable of which are its Komodo dragons, orang-utans, gibbons, and ahippopotamus. The park is 54 acres in size.